Friday, February 24, 2012

বাংলাদেশের ফলবৈচিত্র্যের একটি বিস্তারিত পাঠ, Diversity of Fruit Plants in Bangladesh.



Jackfrut, National fruit of Bangladesh
Prepared by

Anup Sadi

Poet & Author,
October- 2009

Preface
 “A Study on Diversity of Fruit Plants in Bangladeshis a time benefiting topic which deserves due attention and importance of our country. I have made a fair attempt to prepare my topic with the best available information within the limited period.
The objectives of preparing term paper for the training course are to increase  the capacity of trainee for identifying of socio-economic problem to find out the nature and course  of problem to create  awareness  of trainee  about the problem and to solve them through  investigation.
Fruit plants are an important wealth in our country. From long ago fruit plants assail their leaf, stem, root, fruit etc are used to protect desire. But with the much destructing of forest they are also destroyed. According to the scientist  many of  them are already  extinct, so my term paper  topic  is very  important in this time  I am very happy to prepare this term paper within short  time. I would be more than rewarded if my study benefits the readers to some extent and stimulates thinking in the respective spheres.
Acknowledgement
It is worth whole to mention that in doing any important work the guidance and supervision is very essential. Preparation of term paper is a compulsory work of foundation training course. I take this opportunity to express earnest and almost gratitude to the honorable Director General of NAEM for including term paper in the foundation training course. In preparing this report I received whole hearted cooperation from my respectable supervisor and guide Md. Rafiqul Islam. I express my gratitude and heartiest thanks to his guidance, valuable suggestions and sympathetic co-operation.

I am grateful to course director Mostafizur Rahman and course co ordinations. I am also grateful to all NAEM faculty members, library authority for their earnest Co-operation.

Abstract
The Plants which grow fruits according to their fundamental nature are called fruit plants. There are about 140 fruit Plants in our country. They have much variety diversity. They have diversity in size & shape, in habitat, in adaptation power, in flowering, in production season, in somatically element and in the activity on human and animal life.
Most of the plants of the world produce fruits according to their respective nature and variety. Among them only a few number of item, we can use as food for their taste, smell, deliciousness, and overall food value. Those, which can be eaten by human, birds, animals, insects and all other beasts are called fruit. As a result it can be said that the plants which contain fruits are called fruit plants. We not only use the fruits as our food item, but also we use the rest fundamental part of the plants such as roots, leaves, tanks, flowers as many other productive and reproductive purposes. We can get wood which can be used for various constructional works and firewood, biochemical which can be used for manufacturing medicine directly or indirectly, flowers that have both decorative and biochemical values, leaves those are important for making shelter, using as fire  elements, producing biochemical and spices, barks are used as spices, medicine, fiber and many other perspective. Various kinds of fruit items are reproduced to be used as spices, perfumes, cosmetic staples. Fruits contain all kinds of essentials minerals, what are the vital elements for our existence. To make our nature Ecologically balanced and to keep our existence progressive, it is our foremost duty to save, culture, conserve the regarding  fruit plants diversity.
2.1   Introduction
There is a lot of diversity of the fruit plants in the Asian countries especially in South Asia. There is no such diversity in the world. More than 400 types of fruit plants grow in the Asian countries. Among them most fruit plants grow in the South Asian countries. The weather of the South Asian countries is very helpful for the diversity of fruit plants. About More than 50 types of primitive fruit plants originated from South Asia. Minimum 20 fruits are cultivated here commercially. There are many types of fruits those are wild but we can eat them as food item and these fruits varies by their tastes. About 55 percent  of the total fruits are  wild and people do not cultivate them.
The unconventional fruits have plenty of food values. These fruits also can be the source of nutrition and they have also preventive power against disease. So it should be our noble duty to conserve the fruit plants from extinction.
2.1 a  Statement of the problem:
Every country has needed 25% forest land of the total. But our forest is destroyed by the increasing population, house, industry and land is used for cultivation by destroying forest. But forest is very essential part for environmental equilibrity which is very essential for human health. If forest is destroyed promptly we will be also lost our fruit Plants. Because most of them are wild fruits plant. Most of the people of our country are very poor. They almost depend on fruit Plants for their earnings, to treat as food item to treat their disease. From the ancient time man uses different types of fruit Plants such as fruit, root, leaf, stem, bark, flower etc to treat some disease such as dysentery, diarrhea, cold etc. But at present this plants are not found for their destroying in several way. To solve this problem we should take a proper action to conserve the diversification of fruit Plants.
2.1 b  Objectives of this study:
Fruit plants are one of the best natural resource of Bangladesh. It is very much related to our health culture. 100% populations of our country are directly or indirectly depend on fruit plants for their food value.
on the basis of our socio-economic and  vast uses of fruit plants, the main objective of this study are as follow-
 1.   To know about the diversity of fruit plants
 2.   To save the existence of fruit culture.
3.  To introduce our native/ local fruits to our future generation.
2.1 c Scope of the term paper:
Plants especially fruit plants play a significant role in human being. They have several scopes in researching aspects.
But in short time all aspects of motion is very difficult. In this term paper the following scope are described.
1. Habitual and usable diversification of Fruit plants.
2. Identifying the causes of diversity.
3. Solve & Recommendation of the problem.
2.1 d Source and research method:
Due to scarcity of time, I could not collect data form primary source. It includes data and information of various secondary sources. Relevant books, magazines, essays, newspaper etc. have acted as source of data and information.
The technique of writing review article has been followed on the basis of collected data. Yet, in light of our knowledge and experience own conception has also been applied here.   
2.1 e.  Definitions:
The words or term which are used in this term paper are defined below-
Fruit: Only those types of fruits which can be eaten by human being
Bangladesh: Means the whole area of the country which have independence and sovereignty.
Habitat: It means the environment/ place which the plants are grown.
Conservation: This term is used to means the conservation of fruit plants.
Diversity: It means the difference among the fruit plants on the basis of the genetical, environmental and morphological structure.
Pharmacology: The subject in which description is written about the fruit plants.
2.1 f Limitations:
This term paper has been prepared as a supplementary part of 108 Foundation Training course. Due to scarcity of time, I could not understand field level research and follow survey and hypothetical method of fundamental research.
Shortage of time and lack of adequate publication was important constraint for the preparation of the term paper. Lack of fundamental research, we are unable to find out the real English version name of all the local fruits.
2.2  Main Body
2.2.a   Classification of fruit plants
According to the shape and size fruit plants are several types.
we have divided the fruit plants from their timely and we use the scientific and local name of the fruits
1.                              Family:
2.                              Scientific name
3.                              Local name
2.2. b   Significant of fruit plants :-
In human life the significant of fruit plants is unlimited. We get not only the food, grain, dal, oil, fibre, wood, vegetable fruit but also get disease protected medicine from plants. Fruit plants have a very valuable role to protect several diseases.
2.2.c   Fruit plants and it’s diversity:
There are about 130 fruit plants in our country. Most of them are grown in natural environment on the basis of their habitat. Most of them are grown in different place and environment for their adaptation capacity : In below a table is presented on the diversity of fruit plants.

Table -01 : The list of fruit plants on their diversity.
SL No. ক্রম
Local Name in Bangla বাংলা নাম
Scientific Name 
বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম
Family Name 
পরিবারের নাম
01
Mangifera indica L.
Anacardiaceae
02
বনআম
Mangifera sylvatica
03
দেশি আমড়া
Spondias Manigifera
04
বিলাতি আমড়া
Spondias dulcis
05
কাজু বাদাম
Anacordiam Occidentale
06
ননিফল
Morinda citrifolia
07
চিরঞ্জি
Buchanania lanzan
08
Somecarpus anacordium
09
আতা
Anona reticulata
Anonaceae
10
টক আতা
Anona Muricata
11
শরিফা
Anona Squamosa
12
হামজাম
Polyanthia suberosa
13
Polyalthia Suberosa
14
বড়সানে, ছোটসানে
Melodorum fructicosum
15
আঁকুরা
Alangium Salvifolium
Alangiaceac
16
করমচা
cavissa carandas
Apocynaocac
17
মিষ্টি করমচা
Carissa Ovata
18
লতা আম
Willughbea edulis
19
Averrhoa  Carambola
Axalidaceae
20
বিলিম্বি^
Averrhoa bilimbi
21
বাওয়ালী ফল
Sarcolobus globosus
Asclapiadaceae


SL No.
Local Name in Bangla
Scientific Name
Family Name
22
অরবরই
Phyllanthus acidus 
Euphorbiaceae
23
আমলকি
Emblica officinalis
24
কুমকই
Bridelia retusa
25
তিমতোয়া
Antidesma ghesaembilla
26
লটকন
Baccaurea ramiflora
27
মাখনা
Euryale ferox
Urilaceae
28
দেশিগাব
Diospyros perigrina
Ebenaceae
29
গাব গুলাব
Diospyros toposia
30
বহরি
Cordia dichotoma
Ethraceae
31
কালোজা
Ethritia acminata
32
জলফই
Elaeocarpus floribundus
Elaeocarpaceae
33
জলপাই
Olea europea
Oliaceae
34
কাঠবাদাম
Terminalia catappa
Combretaceae
35
বহেরা
Terminalia belerica
36
হরিতকি
Terminalia chebula
37
পেঁপে
Carica papaya
Caricaceae
38
মধুমালতী
Stixis Suaveolens
Capridaceae
39
তরমুজ
Citrullus Vulgaris
Cucerbitaceae
40
বাঙ্গি, ফুটি
Cucumis melo
41
শসা
Cucumis Sativa
42
কাঁকুড়
Cucumis melo var flexuosus
43
চিনার
Cucumis melo var Conomon


SL No.
Local Name in Bangla
Scientific Name
Family Name
44
মারফা
Cucumis melo var reticulatus
45
বিলাতী গাব
Garcinia mangostana
Guttifereae
46
Garcinia-Cowa
47
Garcinia tinctoria
48
তৈকর
Garcinia pedunculata
49
পানিফল
Trapa bicornis
Trapaceae
50
সিঙ্গাড়া ফল
Trapa natans
51
ফলসা
Grewia asiatica
Tiliaceae
52
পিছন্দি
Microcos paniculata
53
ধামিন আসার
Grewia tiliafolia
54
চালতা
Dillenia indica
Dilleniaceae
55
কারকেটা
Dillenia pentagyna
56
পদ্মফল
Nilumbo nucifera
Nilambonaceae
57
নারিকেল
Cocos nucifera
Palmae
58
খেজুর
Phoenix sylvestris
59
হেতাল খেজুর
Phoenix paludosa
60
তাল
Borassus flabelliformis
61
সুপারি
Areca catechu
62
গোলফল
Nipa fruiticans
63
বেতফল
Calamus spp
64
প্যাসন/ট্যাং ফল
Passiflora edulis var flavicarapa
Pacifloraceae
65
ডালিম
Punica granatum
Punicaceae
66
বৈঁচি
Flacourtia indica
Flacortaceae




SL No.
Local Name in Bangla
Scientific Name
Family Name
67
Flacourtia jangomas
68
আনারস
Ananas sativus
Bromaliaceae
69
আংগুর
Vitis venifera
Vitaceae
70
কলা
Musa spp.
Musaceae
71
চুকুর
Hibisxus subdariffa
Malvaceae
72
পেয়ারা
Pisidium guajava
Myrtaceae
73
গোলাপজাম
Syzygium jambos
74
জাম
Syzygium Cuminii
75
কাকজাম
Syzygium fruiticosa
76
পানিজাম
Syzygium Cordatum
77
খুদিজাম
Syzygium fruiticosum
78
বুটিজাম/টেপাজাম
Clcisocalyx operculatus
79
নলিজাম
Syzygium claviflorum
80
বনজাম
Syzygium macrocarpa
81
জামরুল
Syzygium Samarangense
82
জাবটিকাবা
Myrciaria Cauliflora
83
রক্তগোলা
 -
84
Melastoma malabathricum
Melastomaceae
85
কাঁঠাল
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Moraceae
86
ডেউয়া
Artocarpus lakoocha
87
রুটি ফল
Artocarpus altilis
88
চাম ফল
Artocarpus chapasha

SL No.
Local Name in Bangla
Scientific Name
Family Name
89
তুঁত
Morus nigra/rubra
90
ডুমুর
Ficus carica
91
Ficus glomerate
92
শানতোল
Sandoricum indicum
93
বরই
Zizyphus jujuba
Ramnaceae
94
কুল
Zizyphus mauritiana
95
বন বরই
Zizyphus rugosa
96
শিয়াল কুল
Zizyphus oenoplia
97
মন ফল
Randia spinosa
Rubiaceae
98
পিরালু
Randia uliginosa
99
আদা জামির
Citrus assamensis
Rutaceae
100
করুন জামির
Citrus SP
101
কাটা জামির
Citrus SP
102
জারা লেবু
C. aurantifolia
103
কাগজী লেবুy
Citrus aurantifolia
104
সাত করা
Citrus macroptera
105
কলসিলেবুy
Citrus SP
106
গন্ধরাজ লেবু
Citrus SP
107
এলাচ লেবুy
Citrus SP
108
শরবতি লেবুy
C. Limet toides
109
নারিকেলি লেবুy
C. aurantifolia
110
বাতাবি লেবু
C. grandis
111
কমলা লেবু
C. sinensis, C. reticulata

SL No.
Local Name in Bangla
Scientific Name
Family Name
112
বন নেবু
Paramigyna citrifolia
113
বেল
Aegle marmelos
114
কদবেল
Feronia limonia
115
নাশপাতি
Pyrus communis
Rosaceae
116
স্ট্রবেরি
Fragaria vesca
117
পীচ
Prunus persica
118
অ্যাভোকেডো
Persea americana
Loraceae
119
আঁশফল
Euphoria longana
Sapindaceae
120
Litchi chinensis
121
রাম্বুটান
Nephelium lappaceum
122
সফেদা
Achras Zapota
Sapotaceae
123
মহুয়া
Madhuca indica
124
জামান ফল
Pouteria Campechiana
125
তারকা ফল
Chrysophyllum Cainito
126
Mimusops elengi
127
তেঁতুল
Tamarindus indica
Sisalpinaceae
128
জিলাপি ফল
Pithecellobium dulec
129
সিহার ফল
Bauhinia vahlii
130
Sterculia foetida
Sterculiaceae
131
মুলা ফল
Fermiana colorata
132
ড্রাগণ ফল
Hyloceveus Sp.
Cactus
133
লালিম


134
পাদফল


135
চিকান


136
টুকটুকি


137
পানকিচুনকি


138
উড়িআম


139
আমঝুম


140
তিন করা


141
কাজুবাদাম


142
পেস্তাবাদাম




2.2.c     Causes of  the extinction of fruit Plants :
1. Transferable cultivation & human influence
2.  Illegal disection of plants
3.  Excessive use in the brick field as fuel
4.  Wasteful & uncontrol consumption of plants
5.  Agricultural use of forestry and water resources.
6.  Destruction of herbal plants in some cases due to invisible reason.
7.  Lack of forest conservation act and their proper application.
8.  Pressure of high number of population on the forest.
9.  Highly grazing
10.  Destruction of pollinators by human .
11. Habitat destruction.
2.2.h   Available and non-available fruit plants in Bangladesh :
There is  a lot of fruit plants in our country. But almost 10% of them are going to be extinct for the lack of proper conservation policy and scientific used. In below the list of available, vulnerable, endangered critically endangered extinct and data deficient fruit Plants are mention. 
Table -02 : List of the available  vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, extinct and Data deficient fruit plants in Bangladesh. `P' is the symbol of availability of the plants in Bangladesh.

Sl.No
Local Name in Bangla বাংলা নাম
Available সুলভ
Vulnerable সংকটাপন্ন
Endangered বিপদাপন্ন
Critically Endangered বিপন্ন
Extinct বিলুপ্ত
Data deficient
1
P





2
বনআম
P





3
দেশি আমড়া


P



04
বিলাতি আমড়া
P





05
কাজু বাদাম


P



06
ননিফল
P
P




07
চিরঞ্জি



P


08



P


09
আতা
P





10
টক আতা

P




11
শরিফা






12
হামজাম

P




13

P




14
বড়সানে,ছোটসানে


P



15
আঁকুরা


P



16
করমচা
P






Sl.No
Local Name in Bangla
Available
Vulnerable
Endangered
Critically Endangered
Extinct
Data deficient
17
মিষ্টি করমচা

P




18
লতা আম


P



19
P





20
বিলিম্বি^

P




21
বাওয়ালি ফল
P





22
অরবরই

P




23
আমলকি
P





24
কুমকই

P




25
তিমতোয়া
P





26
লটকন
P





27
মাখনা
P





28
দেশিগাব

P




29
গাব গুলাব

P




30
বহরি
P





31
কালোজা

P




32
জলফই

P




33
জলপাই
P





34
কাঠবাদাম
P





35
বহেরা
P





36
হরিতকি
P





37
পেঁপে
P





38
মধুমালতি

P




39
তরমুজ
P





40
বাঙ্গি/ফুটি
P





41
শসা
P





42
কাঁকুড়
P






Sl.No
Local Name in Bangla
Available
Vulnerable
Endangered
Critically Endangered
Extinct
Data deficient
43
চিনার



P


44
মারফা
P





45
বিলাতি গাব
P





46
P





47

P




48
তৈকর



P


49
পানিফল
P





50
সিঙ্গাড়া ফল



P


51
ফলসা



P


52
পিছন্দি



P


53
ধামিন আসার



P


54
চালতা
P





55
কারকেটা

P




56
পদ্মফল
P





57
নারিকেল
P





58
খেজুর
P





59
হেতাল খেজুর
P





60
তাল
P





61
সুপারি
P





62
গোল ফল
P





63
বেত ফল
P





64
প্যাসন/ট্যাং ফল

P




65
ডালিম
P





66
বৈঁচি



P


67
P





68
আনারস
P






Sl.No
Local Name in Bangla
Available
Vulnerable
Endangered
Critically Endangered
Extinct
Data deficient
69
আঙ্গুর
P





70
কলা
P





71
চুকুর





P
72
পেয়ারা
P





73
গোলাপজাম
P





74
জাম
P





75
কাকজাম





P
76
পানিজাম



P


77
খুদিজাম



P


78
বুটিজাম/টেপাজাম




P

79
নলিজাম

P




80
বনজাম

P




81
জামরুল
P





82
জাবটিকাবা



P


83
রক্তগোলা





P
84
ফুটকি
P





85
কাঁঠাল
P





86
ডেউয়া
P





87
ব্রেড ফ্রুট


P



88
চাম ফল
P





89
তুঁত
P





90
ডুমুর

P




91

P




92
শানতোল

P




93
বরই
P





94
কুল
P






Sl.No
Local Name in Bangla
Available
Vulnerable
Endangered
Critically Endangered
Extinct
Data deficient
95
বন বরই

P




96
শিয়াল কুল

P




97
মনফল
P





98
পিরালু



P


99
আদা জামির
P





100
করুন জামির

P




101
কাটা জামির

P




102
জারা লেবু

P




103
কাগজী লেবু
P





104
সাতকরা
P





105
কলসি লেবু


P



106
গন্ধরাজ লেবু
P





107
এলাচ লেবু

P




108
শরবতি লেবু
P





109
নারিকেলী লেবু

P




110
বাতাবী লেবু
P





111
কমলা লেবু
P





112
বন নেবু

P




113
বেল
P





114
কদবেল
P





115
নাশপাতি
P





116
স্ট্রবেরি
P





117
পীচ


P



118
অ্যাভোকেডো

P




119
আঁশফল


P



120
P







Sl.No
Local Name in Bangla
Available
Vulnerable
Endangered
Critically Endangered
Extinct
Data deficient
121
রাম্বুটান


P



122
সফেদা
P





123
মহুয়া

P




124
জামান ফল

P




125
তারকা ফল


P



126
P





127
তেঁতুল
P





128
জিলাপি ফল
P





129
সিহার ফল

P




130

P




131
মুলা ফল

P




132
ড্রাগণ ফল


P



133
লালিম



P


134
পাদফল



P


135
চিকান



P


136
টুকটুকি



P


137
পানকিচুনকি



P


138
উড়িআম



P


139
আমঝুম



P


140
তিন করা



P


141
কাজু বাদাম


P



142
পেস্তা বাদাম


P




2.2.g   The necessity and importance of  the conservation of fruit plants :
We should conserve the fruit plants for the next generation to use them.
The necessity and importance of conservation of fruit plants in Bangladesh are as follows.
1. For protect natural equilibrium: From the primitive stage of the world, nature produces a biodiversity for a specific area for equilibrium. That natural equilibrity is destroyed by the destruction of any species of that place and natural environment is fallen in much disaster. Fruit plants are one of the parts of biodiversity. So they have great contribution.
2.  To protect future probable food items:
            We may get highly valuable food items from some fruit plants in future which help our next generations to treat as food and other items. So far the probable future we should conserve the fruit plants.
3. To protect genetic germplasm:
            Fruit Plants are useful and they contain the zene that are very important for the germplasm . So we should conserve it .
4. For kinetic ecosystem and evolution:
Every biodiversity supply  the kinetic  energy to the  ecosystem which  help to evolutes the species. So we should conserve the biodiversity to protect our ecosystem.
6. To protect sound environment:
Plants play an important role to protect the natural disaster. Fruit plants also play this role.
7. For economic development:
Uses of fruit plants by scientific method can help a great development in economy. So we should manage the appropriate use of them.
3.3.a    Main step taken by Govt. to conserve the diversification of fruit plants are as follows
1. Taken membership of SACEP
2. Assigned the IUCN (Now converted into WCU) regulatory Act to conserve fruit plants.
3. Policy taken for 20 years to conserve plants.
4. Formation of National Forest policy Act 1994.
5. Tree plantation observed from 1stJune to 31st August every year.
6. Advertise through radio, television and other media for awareness of people.
7. Establish of National Botanical Garden, National Eco Park to conserve the wild life. 
3.3.b  Research Findings:
1. Most of the fruit plants are on the way of extinction.
2. Due to modern science and technology, men are giving less importance to fruit plants.
3. Diversity of fruit plants is becoming destroyed due to change of environment.
4. Problems of marketing.
5. Lack of knowledge on fruit value on fruit plants.
3.3.c  Recommendations :
It is the responsibility of all concerned people from peasants to president to preserve ecology simultaneously to conserve the biodiversity. Fruit plants are one of the part of biodiversity. Probable path to conserve the diversity of fruit plants are as follows.
1. Usefulness of fruit plants should be publicized by Govt. NGOs and personally through radio, Television and other media.
2. To save the forest for conserving the fruit plants.
3. A specific division should be established in BNH to know the fruit plants easily.
4. To established at least one fruits valley in each and every garden of every district specially for fruit plants for Zene Bank.
5. The use of land should be planned on the basis of the destruction of forest.
6. Proper management of the use of plants is necessary.
7. To Supply the books on fruit plants in every public library and regarded sector.
3.3.d  Conclusion :
Fruit plants not only give us food but also protect our environmental disequilibrity. To save the diversity of fruit plants are to save ourselves. We have to save  the fruit plants to develop our environment and keep the existence of native fruits long live. We have to manage the use of fruit plants some how to think of its significance. Other wise our future generation cannot be benefited by it. We should make our life comfortable considering the condition of future generations to come.
3.3.e    Bibliography :
1.         Banglar Bichitro Fal, Mrityunjoy Roy, Dibyaprakash, Dhaka.
2.         Biodiversity and Conservation, Hasan Md Abdul, Hasan book House, Dhaka.
3.         Vasoge Biggan, Goni, Abdul, Bangla Academy, Dhaka.
4.         Dijen sharma, Shamoly Nisorgo, Bangla Academy, Dhaka. .
5.         Mokarom Hossen, Bangladesher ful o fal, Samay Prakasan, Dhaka.
6.         Bangladesher Proyozonio Gash Gashra, Tapon Dey, Forest Division, Comilla.
7.         Plants Name of Bangladesh Huq. A. M- Bangladesh National Harbariums.
8.         World Flowers of Bangladesh, the University press Ltd, Bangladesh.
9.         Bangla Pedia, Bangladesh Asiatic Society.
10.       Ortho o shasther jonno udbhid- Kayes Md Mizanur Rahman.
11.       Dr. Md. Mamunur Rashid, Fuler Chas, Dibyaprakash, Dhaka.

You may read other essaies of Anup Sadi

আরো পড়ুনঃ

২. বাংলাদেশের পাখির তালিকা, A checklist of the Birds of Bangladesh.

৩. বাংলাদেশের ঔষধি গাছ, Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh.


1 comment:

  1. Can anyone have idea about Garcinia cambogia in Bangladesh? Do we have that fruit?

    ReplyDelete

জনপ্রিয় দশটি লেখা, গত সাত দিনের

Recommended