Monday, December 24, 2012

বাংলাদেশের ঔষধি গাছের একটি বিস্তারিত পাঠ, Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh.



Medicinal Plants in Bangladesh

Anup Sadi


Aloe Vera, a very common medicinal plants of Bangladesh
Introduction: Medical plant is an important wealth in our country. From long ago medicinal   plant assail their leaf, stem, root, fruit etc are used to protect desire. But with the much destructing of forest they are also destroyed. According to the scientist  many of  them are already  extinct, so the  topic  is very  important in this time  I am very happy to prepare this within short  time. I would be more than rewarded if my study benefits the readers to  some extent and stimulates  thinking in the respective spheres.

Abstract
The plants which are useful for healing several diseases are called medicinal plant. The main theme is that the herbal medicated plant is called the medicinal plant? Bacteria Fungi, Algae, Bryophytes Pteridophytes Gymnosperms, Angiosperm each of the group has medicinal plant. There are 722 medicinal plants in our country. They have much variety diversity. They have diversity in size & shape, in habitat, in adaptation power, in flowering, in production season, in somatical element and in the activity on human life. We can detect or distinguish than easily for their individual diversity. We can use them in several purposes for their diversity. Main of them are to control disease. Most of the antibiotic such as subtilin; `polimixin’ penicillin etc are produced from this medicinal plant. Besides this all of the Unani, Herbal, Kobiraji, Homeopath medicine are produced from medicinal plant. In this way different utility and characteristics based medicinal plant are also recognized weeds plant, aquatic plants, fruitat plant, forestall plant etc. Each of the plant group has individual diversity and this diversity has special importance. Basically the habitual, morphological or somatic elemental diversity of medicinal plant is very valuable to us.
2.1   Introduction
The total numbers of plants with medicinal properties in the subcontinent are present stands at about 2000. About 450 to 500 of such medicinal plants name so far been enlisted as growing or available in Bangladesh (Abdull Ghani).
In traditional systems indigenous knowledge (IK) plays a central role in discuses diagnosis and health care practices. Rapid westernization and introduction of modern medicine in many places has affected not only the traditional system but also I associated with it. Especially in areas with rapid urbanizations the traditional medicinal system and I have become seriously vulnerable. The risk is not so great for well documented Ayurvedic, Hekimi and Unani ones but many undocumented system of folk medicine which have been handed down form one generations to the next by word of month are in example of the indigenous knowledge based folk medicine which has been used and appreciated since prehistoric times.
IK based folk medicine constitutes a very diverse steam in Bangladesh and is ecosystem and ethic community specific different localities have different characteristics. The rich heritage if indigenous knowledge associated with herbal medicine is considered as the root of all systems of traditional remedies in Bangladesh. During the course of development in the remote past, a particular remedy discovered become widespread and subsequently listed refined revised improved upon and gradually incorporated in the traditional codified system among the practitioners.
2.1. a   Statement of the problem:
Every country has needed 25% forestland of the total. But our forests with under plant are destroyed by the increasing population house industry and land is used for cultivation by destroying forest. But forest is very essential past for environmental equilibrium which is very essential for human health. If forest is destroyed promptly we will be also lost our medicinal plant. Because most of them are wild in nature. Most of the people of our country are very poor. They almost depend on medicinal plant to treat their disease. From the old man uses different types of medicinal plant such as fruit, root, leaf, stem etc to treat some disease such as dysentery diarrhea, cold etc. Besides this herbal medicine is very cheap. But at present this plant is not found for their destroying in several ways. To solve this problem we should take a proper action to conserve the diversification of medicinal plant.
2.1. b.  Objective of this study:
Medicinal plant is very much related to our health culture. 80% populations of our country are directly or indirectly depends medicinal plant for health problem.
On the basis of our socio-economic and health sectors situation we should need a vast uses of medicinal plant.
The main objectives of this study are as follows
1.         To know about the habitat, diversity of medicinal plant.
2.         To know about the conservation of medicinal plant.
3.         To know about the uses of medicinal plant against several diseases.
4.         To know about the commercial use of Medicinal plants
5.         To formulate relevant potties recommendations in the context of existing conditions.
6.         To know about the action of Govt. to conserve the plant.
2.1. c.  Scope of the term paper:
Plant specially medicinal plant play a significant role in human being. They have several scopes in researching aspects.
But in short time all aspects mentionable is very difficult. In this term paper the following scope are described.
1.      Habitual and usable diversification of Medicinal plant.
2. Commercial Uses of medicinal plant in our country.
3. Identifying the causes of diversity.
4. Solve & Recommendation of the problem.
2.1. d.  Source and research method :
Due to scarcity of time I could not collect data form primary source. It includes data and information of various secondary sources. Relevant books, magazine, essays, etc. have acted as source of data and information.
The technique of writing review article has been followed on the basis of collected data. Yet, in light of our knowledge and experience own conception has also been applied here.   
2.1. e.  Definitions:
The words or term which are used in this term paper are defined below-
Study: Study means a process making a report. In any kinds of research, a study is highly essential without study on researcher can reach its goal. 
Bangladesh: Means the whole area of the country which have independence and sovereignty.
Medicinal Plant:         Medicinal Plants are those that are commonly used in treating and preventing specific ailments and diseases, and that are generally considered to play a beneficial role in health care.
Habitat: It means the environment/ place which the plant are grown.
Conservation: This term is used to means the conservation of medicinal plant.
Conservation: This term is used to means the conservation of medicinal plant.
Diversity: It means the difference among the medicinal plant on the basis of the genetically, environmental and morphological structure.
Pharmacology: The subject in which description is written about the medicinal plant.
2.1. f  Limitations:
This term paper has been prepared as a supplementary part of 94 Foundation Training course. Due to scarcity of time, I could not understand field level research and follow survey method of fundamental research.
Shortage of time and lack of adequate publication was important constraint for the preparation of the term paper.
Tulsi, a very famous medicinal plant of India
2.2.  Main Body
2.2.a   Classification of medicinal plant
According to the shape and size medicinal plant are 3 types.
1.                  Herb: Steam is soft
2.                  Shrub: Their steam wooden & bush shaped.
3.                  Tree: Their steam is wooden & branch.

On the basic of habitation medicinal plant are 5 types.
1.                  Desert areas medicinal plant
2.                  Plain land areas medicinal plant
3.                  Forest & Hill Tracts areas medicinal plant
4.                  Fresh water medicinal plant
5.                  Saline water medicinal plant.
2.2.b.    Significant of medicinal plant:
In human life the significant of medicinal plant is unlimited. We get not only the food grain, dal, oil, fiber, wood, vegetable fruit but also get disease protected medicine from plant. Medicinal plant has a very valuable role to protect several diseases.
Many antibiotic such as penicillin; Streptomycin etc. which are used against several chronic diseases such as pneumonia, uretus disfunctional disease, typhoid, meningitides, peritonitis etc. Besides this medicinal plant play a significant role to control the hydrophobia, cardiac, dysentery, diarrhea, diabetics etc.

2.2.c. Medicinal plant and it’s diversity on the basis of their habitat:
There are 722 medicinal plants in our country (A. Gani 1998). Most of them are grown in natural environment on the basis of their habitat they are classified into 5 types. Most of them are grown in different place and environment for their adaptation capacity: In below a table is presented on the basic of their habitat.
Table -01: The list of medicinal plant grows in different habitat.
SL No.
Plant group
Habitat
Local Name of the plant
01
Plain land and crop land plant
Plain land  cultivate land
Kanibashi, Ghatecochu, khadnli, Shialkata,
Kukra,
Ghagra,
Dondokolosh,
Kalomegh,

02
Surrounding the path of Home
Marginally high land there is no water
Bashok, Bonera, Akondo,
Tharkrri,
Talecochu, chalta,
Punornova,
Dafura, Amloki,
Tulsi, Kuch, Kashori,
03
Forest and Hill tracts plant
Deciduous forest, Hill tracts forast.
Bormasri,
Nota,
Nimaada,
Nallota,
Vui,

04
Fresh water and waterloging land plant
Side of the canal, Hill Boure, Doba
Sadapata,
Hizor,
Halencha,
Jolkolmi,
Soale,
Sapla,
Saluk,
Padma,

05
Coastal areas plant
Coostal area & Mangrave forest
Hargoza,
Sadakolmi,
Panlota, Koromcha,
Junjuri,
vola
Sadormala etc.
2.2.d.  Medicinal plant and it’s diversity on the basis of their utility :
Various varieties of medicinal plants have been observed in Bangladesh, India, and even throughout South Asia. You should read my latest essay on this topic. The essay name is "Diversity of medicinal plants according to the use of body parts". That essay will show the medicinal plants according to the scientific name, local Bengali name, family of the plants, parts of plants and the effectiveness of the disease. 
Read Also: The Link is here


Table –2 :  Percentage of using  medicinal plant  in several types of  treatment.
Sl No.
Types of Treatment
Percentage of using  medicinal plant
1
Folk
35
2
Aiurbadik
31
3
Unani
22
4
Homeopath
12
Source :  Dixie et al , 2003
2.2.e.  Commercial Use of Medicinal plants in Bangladesh:
(source : Hakim Am. Rakibul Islam, Director (Morketing) Handard Laboratoris (Oyakaph) Bangladesh)

Table - 3


SL No.
Scientific name
Local name
Use (Tan)
Price Taka Kg/Piece
1.
Carica papaya
পেপে
6200
4
2.
Cassia fistula
বান্দর লাঠি
4600
8
3.
Piper betle
পান
365500
0.3
4.
Terminalia chebula
হরিতকী
3300
16
5.
Aegle marmelos
বেল
2600
30
6.
Rosa damascene, Flower
গোলাপ
2200
150
7.
Cocos nucifera
নারকেল
280000
14
8.
Zingiber officinale   
আদা
2000
20
9.
Aloe barbadensis
ঘৃতকুমারী
224
280
10.
Trachytspermum ammi
Jayno
1900
27
11.
Phyllanthus emblica
আমলকি
1900
75
12.
Cassia angustifoia
Sunapata
1900
55
13.
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Shasthimadu
1800
50
14.
Nymphaea nouchali
শাপলা
1700
30
15.
Terminalia belerica
বহেরা
1400
13
16.
Cinnamonun zeylanicum
দারচিনি
1200
76
17.
Swerita chirata
চিরতা
1100
320
18.
Allium sativum
রসুন
1000
23
19.
Cichorium intybs,
কাশিমূল
100
120
20.
Cichorium intybus
কাশি বীজ
1000
160
21.
Elettaria-cardamomum
ছোট এলাচ
1000
450
22.
Saraca indica
অশোক
1000
8
23.
Cyperus rotundus
মুথা
1000
25
24.
Fumaria officinalis
Shahtara
1000
24
25.
Andrographis paniculata
কালোমেঘ
1000
18
26.
Smilax aristalochaefolia
Oshaba
900
28
27.
Foeniculum vulgare
Mouri
800
44
28.
Withania somnifera
অশ্বগন্ধা
800
100
29.
Adhatoda vasica
বাসক
600
18
30.
Citrus aurantifolia
লেবু
600
1
31.
Coriandrum sativum
Dania
580
23
32.
Solanum nigrum
ফুটি বেগুন
550
145
33.
Syzygium cumini
কালজাম
550
25
34.
Zingiber officinale
আদা শুঠ
500
65
35.
Sphaeranthus indicus
Mundi
480
30
36.
Ocimum sanctum
480
20
37.
Tamarindus indica
450
20
38.
Azadirachta indica     
নিম
440
20
39.
Azadirachta indica     
নিম
430
20
40.
Cuminum cyminum     
Gira
370
95
41.
Holarrhena antidysenterica
কুরচি
360
21
42.
Vetiveria zezanioides 
Khs
350
120
43.
Asparagus racemosus
শতমূলী
340
230
44.
Eugenia caryophyllus
লবঙ্গ
340
185
45.
Centella asiatica
থানকুনি
340
35
46.
Tinospora cordifolia
গুলঞ্চ
330
20
47.
Cassia occidentalis
কালকাসুন্দা
325
18
48.
Solanum xanthocarpum
320
18
49.
Mentha arvensis
পুদিনা
300
48
50.
Dalbergia sissoo
শিশু
300
20
51.
Boerhaavia diffusa
Punarnova
290
40
52.
Tephrosia purpurea
Sarjuka
270
34
53.
Tribulus terrestris
Gokshor
260
52
54.
Lpomoea turpethum
তেউরি/Teuri
260
30
55.
Terminalia arjuna
র্জুন
230
18
56.
Euryale  ferox
তালমাখনা
225
60
57.
Cordia latifolia
Sapestan
220
40
58.
Curcuma zeodaria
Akangi
215
35
59.
Areca catechu
সুপারি
200
50
60.
Cinnamomum tamala
তেজপাতা
180
28
61.
Curcuma longa
হলুদ
265
20
62.
Rauvolfia serpentine

সর্পগন্ধা
160
180
63.
Punica granatum

ডালিম
145
65
64.
Berberis aristata

Daruharudra
140
55
65.
Nardostachys jatamansi

জাতামশি/Jatamanshe
140
60
66.
Chrozophora prostate

নীলকণ্ঠি
99
65
67.
Strychnos nnux-vomixa

কুচিলা
90
52
68.
Lagenaria sicararia

কদু
86
75
69.
Cydonia vulgar is
বিহিদানা/Bihidana
72
550
70.
Bambusa arundinacea
Banshalochan
72
70
71.
Trigonella foenum-graceum
মেথি
70
32
72.
Eclipta alba
ভৃঙ্গরাজ
60
40
73.
Tamarindus indica
তেতুল
60
35
74.
Helicteres isora
Atamura
60
40
75.
Gymnema  sylvestre

Gurmarbuti
60
140
76.
Cinnamomum cassia
তাজ/Taj
55
90
77.
Sesamum indicum
সাদা তিল
50
25
78.
Cuscuta reflexa
115
62
79.
Linum usitatissimum
তিসি
45
30
80.
Melia azedarach
ঘোড়ানিম
40
40
81.
Lawsonia alba
মেহেদি
35
60
82.
Daucus carota
গাগার/Gagar
35
10
83.
Rubia cordifolia
মাঙ্গিস্তা/Mangishta
30
85
84.
Plumbago zeylanica
চিতামূল/chitamul
30
75
85.
Nigella sativa
কালোগিয়া/Kalogia
27
38
86.
Salmalia malabarica
মছরাস/Mochras
25
90
87.
Ipomoea paniculatum
ভূঁইকুমড়া
24
30
88.
Amomum subulatum
বড় এলাচি
23
360
89.
Mesua ferrea
নাগেশ্বর
23
140
90.
Mentha arvensis
কাঁচা পুদিয়া/Kacha pudia
18
33
91.
Punica granatum
ডালিম
18
500
92.
Raphamus sativus
মুলা
18
65
93.
Vitex  negundo
নিশিন্দা
9
36
94.
Liysea sebifera
মেদা/Meda
9
26
95.
Cardiospermum helicaebum
বাঁকালি/Bankali
9
300
96.
Aegle marmelos
বেল
9
26

2.2.g. Causes of the extinction of medicinal Plant :
1.                  Transferable cultivation & human influence.
2.                  Illegal dissections of plants.
3.                  Excessive use in the brick field as fuel.
4.                  Wasteful & uncontrolled consumption of plant.
5.                  Agricultural use of forestry and water resources.
6.                  Destruction of herbal plant in some cases due to invisible reason.
7.                  Lack of forest conservation act and their proper application.
8.                  Pressure of high number of population on the forests.
9.                  Highly grazing.
10.              Destruction of pollinators by human.
11.              Habitat destruction.
2.2.h. Nearly extinct medicinal plant in Bangladesh:
Once there was a lot of medicinal plant in our country. But almost 50% of them are extinct for the lack of proper conservation policy and scientific used. In below the list of nearly extinct medicinal plants are mentions.
Table -4 : List of the  nearly extinct medicinal plants in Bangladesh
Sl No.
Plant Group
Local Name
01
Plain and crop land plant
Sadamorog, Sialkata, Kukra, Dondokolos, Kulekhari, Kulomagis, Noapata, Panicula, Futki Kusumukul.
02
Plant beside the path and surrounding the Home.
Indrojob, Mohavringoraj, Chalta, Roktodron, Pitraj, Dumur, Bishfall, Hazarbeli, Nisinda.
03
Forest and Hill Tracts Areas Plant.
Bonranga, Paharikus, Bontulshi, Dolshmutra, Isobgul, Mutmunda, Marishal, Bonada,
04.
Fresh Water and Waterloging Plant.
Sadapana, Soal, Holdapana, Panikapur.
Source : Ahmed 1997, Khan & Huq. 1995
In Red Data Book it is mentioned that there are 106 number of plant are endangered. Among them 8 plant are medicinal. They are enlisted below :
Table – 05 : List of endangered plant in Rate Data Book.
SL No
Scientific Name
Local Name
01
Andrographis peniculati
কালোমেঘ/Kalomegh
02
Rouwolfia serpentina
সর্পগন্ধা/Sorpogondha
03
Terminalia citrina
হরিতকি/Horitoki
04
Cycas pectinata
Unknown
05
Dioscorea prazeri
Unknown
06
Cymbidium aloifolium
Unknown
07
Amomum costatum
Unknown
08
Zingiber roseum
Unknown

2.2.i. The necessity and importance of conservation of medicinal plant:
We should conserve the medicinal plant for the next generation to use them.
The necessity and importance of conservation of medicinal plant in Bangladesh are as follows.
1.      For protect natural equilibrium: Almighty god gives us a biodiversity for a specific area for natural equilibrium. That natural equilibrium is destroyed by the destruction of any species of that place and natural environment is fallen in much disaster. Medicinal plant is one of the past of biodiversity. So they have great contribution.
2. To protect future probability:
We may get highly valuable medicine from some medicinal plant
 in future which help our next generations to treat chronic disease. So far the probable future we should conserve the medicinal plant.
3. To protect genetic germplasm:
Medicinal plants are useful and they contain the zene that are very importance for the germplasm. So we should conserve it
4. For kinetic ecosystem and evolution:
Every biodiversity supply the kinetic energy to the ecosystem which helps to evaluate the species. So we should conserve the biodiversity to protect our ecosystems.
5. To protect sound environment:
Plant plays an important role to protect the natural disaster. Medicinal plant also plays this role.
6. For economic development:
Uses of medicinal plant by scientific method can help a great development in economics. So we should manage the appropriate use of them
3.a. Main step taken by Govt. to conserve the diversification of medicinal plant are as follows:
1.         Taken membership of SACEP
2.         Assigned the IUCN (Now converted into WCU) regulatory Act to conserve medicinal plant.
3.         Policy taken for 20 years to conserve plant.
4.         Formation of National Forest policy Act 1994.
5.         Tree plantation observed from 1st June to 31st August every year.
6.         Advertise through radio, television and other media for awareness of people.
7.         Establish of National Botanical Garden and National  Eco Park to conserve the wild life. 
3.b. Findings:
From the above research we found that the different medicinal plants are grown in different habitat such as in water, in low land, in high land, in hill in forest etc.
We knew about the importance of conservation of medicinal plants
Different medicinal plants are used for treatment of different diseases. As we have a lot of medicinal plant in surrounding us so we have many kind of disease. Different medicinal plant have to controlled the different disease. Sometimes same disease is controlled by different plant i.e. Cynodon  dactylon (দূর্বা) and Mikania scandens (আসামলতা) are used for control of blood bleeding, here two different plant are used for same purpose : But this difference and diversity is important by the other way e.g. Cynodon dactylon is found in field easily but Mikania scandens is found in forest. Where there Cynodon dactylon is not available, in fact that the diversity of medicinal plant is important with their utility.
For the control of dysentery Holarrhena antidysentrica (কুরচি), Paedaria foetida (Gondhoradnle) of Centella asiatica (থানকুনি) are used: Among them Holarrhena antidysentrica in tree, Paedaria foetida is creeper,and Centella asiatica is herb. For the difference of morphological structure one can select any one of them on the basis of their surroundings habitat for the cultivation or conservation of diversity.
If all the disease are controlled by one plant is best so on. But one plant is not grown in the entire environment of the world. So it is not possible to collect this plant easily. On the other hand if the plant is destroyed by the cause of pathogenic, so many Patients are died without medicinal plant. So we should conserve this basically on their habitat and usable needs.
We knew about their commercial uses.
We knew about the action of govt. to conserve the plant.
3.c.  Recommendations:
It is the responsibility of all concerned people from peasants to president to preserve ecology simultaneously to conserve the biodiversity. Medicinal plant is one of the parts of biodiversity.
Probable paths to conserve the diversity of medicinal plant:
1.                  Usefulness of medicinal plant should be publicized by Govt. through radio, Television and other media.
2.                  To save the forest for conserving the medicinal plant.
3.                  A specific division should be established in BNH to know the medicinal plant easily.
4.                  To established a garden specially by medicinal plant for Zene Bank.
5.                  The use of land should be planned on the basis of the destruction of forest.
6.                  Proper management of the use of plant is necessary.
7.                  To Supply the pharmacology in every public library and health center.
3.d.  Conclusion:
To save the diversity of medicinal plant is to save ourselves. First we have to save the medicinal plant, and then we can proceed to development our health situation. Carefulness should be ensured in every time at use the medicinal plant so that proper management can ran for the next generation. Medicinal plants not only give us medicine but also protect our environmental in-equilibrium. We have to manage the use of medicinal plant some how to think of its significance. Otherwise, our future generation cannot be benefited by it. We should make our life comfortable considering the condition of future generations to come.
3.e. Bibliography :
1.         Biodiversity and Conservation, Hasan Md Abdul, Hasan book House, Dhaka.
2.         Vasoge Biggan, Goni, Abdul, Bangla Academy, Dhaka.
3.         Bangladesher Vesoge Udvid, Hasan Md. Abul, Asrafia Boye Ghar, Dhaka.
4.         Gash Apnar Doctor, Prof, Kamrunnnasa Dulal, Mowsumi Publication, Dhaka.  
5.         Bangladesher Proyozonio Gash Gashra, Tapon Dey, Forest Division, Comilla.
6.         Plants Name of Bangladesh Huq. A. M- Bangladesh National Harbariums.
7.         World Flowers of Bangladesh, the University press Ltd, Bangladesh.
8.         Red Data Book- Bangladesh National Harbarium, Dhaka.
9.         Bangla Pedia, Bangladesh Asiatic Society.
10.       Ortho o shasther jnno udbhid- Kayes Md Mizanur Rahmah

Acronyms and Abbreviation

SACEP                     South Asian Cooperation Environment Program.
IUCN                       International Union for conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
BNH                         Bangladesh National Herbarium.
WHO               -           World Health Organization.
FTC                 -           Foundation Training Course.
B.C.S               -           Bangladesh Civil Service.
NAEM             -           National Academy for Educational Management.
WCU               -           World Conservation Union.

 

You may read other essays of Anup Sadi


Read More:
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11 comments:

  1. খুব ভাল লাগল লেখাটি।উপকারী পোষ্ট।ধন্যবাদ রইল।

    ReplyDelete
  2. Nice article, Can u please tell me what is the scientific name of indrojob . What it is called in English and its benefit.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Dr. Ashoke Kumer Roy10/26/2013 8:00 AM

    This composition has helped me to a great extent. I believe everybody will be benefited going through this text. Thank the author very much.

    ReplyDelete
  4. খুবই দরকারী আমাদের জন্য ধন্যবাদ!

    ReplyDelete
  5. very informative post...thanks alot to anup vai...

    ReplyDelete
  6. তুইতা, স্বর্ণ সিন্দূর(সিন্দূ), ফিটকারী এগুলার বিবরন, ইংলিশ নাম বা জেনেটিক নাম কোথায় পেতে পারি? অগ্রিম ধন্যবাদ ।

    ReplyDelete
  7. Oreganum valgare bangla name ta ki?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. বাংলা নাম পাওয়া যাবে না, যেহেতু উদ্ভিদটি বাংলা অঞ্চলের নয়। কী নাম দেয়া যায় একটু ভেবে আমাকে জানাবেন, বাংলা উইকিপিডিয়ায় নামটি ব্যবহার করা যেতে পারে।

      Delete
    2. Can you please tell me the English name of Dakate Pata

      Delete
  8. What is tha English of bangla herb'shota'???

    ReplyDelete
  9. Chlorophytum borivilianum. Indian Name Safed Musli. Bangladesh e ki name?

    ReplyDelete

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